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He expressed it in his famous statement πάντα ῥεῖ ‘panta rhei’ or ‘everything flows’.* He saw change as the essence of nature, in contrast to Parmenides. These two equally famous opinions induced many scholars to investigate in more detail whether in nature there are conserved quantities or whether creation is possible. We will uncover the answer later on; until then, you might Challenge 3 s ponder which option you prefer. Parmenides’ collaborator Zeno of Elea (born c. 500 bce) argued so intensely against motion that some people still worry about it today. In one of his arguments he claims – in simple language – that it is impossible to slap somebody, since the hand first has to travel halfway to the face, then travel through half the dist ance that remains, then again so, and so on; the hand therefore should never reach the face. Zeno’s argument focuses on the relation between infinity and its opposite, finitude, in the description of motion. Ref. 7 In modern quantum theory, a related issue is a subject of research up to this day. Zeno also maintained that by looking at a moving object at a single instant of time, one cannot maintain that it moves. He argued that at a single instant of time, there is no difference between a moving and a resting body. He then deduced that if there is no difference at a single time, there cannot be a difference for longer times. Zeno therefore questioned whether motion can clearly be distinguished from its opposite, rest. Indeed, in the history of physics, thinkers switched back and forward between a positive and a negative answer. It was this very question that led Albert Einstein to the development of general relativity, one of the high points of our journey. In our adventure, we wi ll explore all known differences between motion and rest. Eventually, we will dare to ask whether single instants of time do exist at all. Answering this question is essential for reaching the top of Motion Mountain. When we explore quantum theory, we will discover that motion is indeed – to a certain extent – an illusion, as Parmenides claimed. More precisely, we will show that motion is observed only due to the limitations of the human condition.We will find that we experience motion only because